Page of

(p.309) Index

(p.309) Index

Source:
About Method
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
Accademia del Cimento, 11, 13, 28–29, 32, 34, 47, 109, 239n2
accidents, 18, 37, 40, 49, 51, 54, 86, 88, 92–93, 183, 225, 249n14
actors’ terms, 8–10, 143, 168
Allbutt, T. Clifford, 190–92, 223
Allen, Garland, 274n73
Amaral, Afranio do, 197–98
American Physiological Society (APS), 140, 144, 162–63
Amsterdamska, Olga, 266n7
Andral, Gabriel, 271n42
animal spirits, 28, 38–39, 53, 72–73
antidote, 3, 28–29, 31, 35, 37, 41, 45, 54, 69, 78, 86, 88, 99, 113, 116, 119–20, 131–32, 134–35, 197, 239n15, 259n72;
Bibron’s antidote, 116, 119–20, 131, 135. See also theriac; volatile alkali
antitoxin, 170–72, 177–78, 270n35
antivivisectionism, 75, 116–19, 142, 156, 168, 222, 261n24
Appel, Toby, 260n18, 266n8
Aristotelianism, 16–17, 19, 22, 239n2
Aristotle, 18, 21–22, 30
auxiliary hypothesis. See hypothesis: auxiliary
Bacon, Francis, 2, 11–13, 16–18, 24, 40–41, 104–5, 126, 226, 237n15, 242n52, 250n25, 250n28;
Novum Organum, 16–17, 80, 104, 222, 242n52. See also idols of the mind
Baconian, 12, 14, 16, 18, 24, 275n85
Baconianism, 6, 26, 226
bacteria toxins, 171, 198
bactericidal power, 171–72, 179–81, 193, 274n64, 274n66
bacteriological revolution, 167–69, 259n9
Baldwin, Martha, 233n6, 239n3, 239n5, 240n18
Baldwin, Melinda, 284n71
Bazerman, Charles, 7, 223, 235n16
Bechtel, William, 232n2, 232n3, 281n33
Behring, Emil von, 166, 170
Bernoulli, Johann, 67–69
Bertoloni Meli, Domenico, 232n4, 242n53
Bertomeu-Sánchez, José-Ramon, 255n39
Biagioli, Mario, 238n1
Billings, John, 142–43, 156–57, 189, 258n7, 265n65
blood, 3, 28, 49, 51, 53, 62, 71, 73, 75, 97, 123, 171–72, 175, 195;
agglutination, 172–74;
bleeding (of the wound), 34, 49, 72, 94, 96;
in contact with venom, 35, 37–38, 64–68, 72–74, 87, 91, 99, 101–3, 116, 123–24, 138, 152, 161, 169, 173, 178, 180;
corpuscles, 171, 173–74, 184, 186;
corpuscles, washing of, 174, 186, 271n42;
snake blood, 45, 174–75;
transfusion, 15, 58. (p.310) See also Mitchell, S. Weir: action of venom on blood
Boring, Edwin, 151–52, 154, 263n44
Boschiero, Luciano, 236n9, 239n2
Bourdelot, Pierre Michon, 42, 46, 221, 243n1
Bowditch, Henry, 140, 168, 260n14, 263n49, 269n29
Boyle, Robert, 16–23, 33–35, 57, 59, 67, 73, 76, 92, 143, 175, 223, 234n13, 237n25, 238nn26–27;
on contingencies, 20–21, 25;
narrative and discourses on experiment, 23–27, 36, 103–5;
on poisons, 20–22;
on unsuccessful experiments, 88
Brain, Robert, 259–60n13, 261n23
Brandt, Christina, 279n20
Buchwald, Jed, 249n20
Burian, Richard, 249n7, 282n49
Burney, Ian, 233n6
Burr, Anna Robeson, 253n6, 253n10
Butantan, 199–200, 205, 212, 278n13
Bynum, William, 253n13, 268n27
Cahan, David, 271–72n47
Cairns, William, 190
Calcott, Brett, 280n27
Calmette, Albert, 161, 185, 188, 276n98
Cambrosio, Alberto, 263n42
Canale, D. J., 252n1
Carter, K. Codell, 262n37, 274n69
Cartwright, Nancy, 280n28, 281n32
Catellani, Patrizia, 241n38
cause, 13, 34, 38–40, 63–64, 81, 100, 126–27, 129, 130–31, 133–34, 149–56, 154, 180–83, 218–19, 274n69, 275n74;
causal method, 182, 226;
hidden, 80, 87, 100–103;
invisible, 172, 176, 200. See also unobservables
Cervetti, Nancy, 252n1, 253n15, 261n20, 261n24, 265n61
Chalmers, Iain, 262–63n41
Chang, Ku-Ming (Kevin), 245n16
Charas, Moyse, 35–41, 46–52, 53, 58, 68–69, 75–76, 98–99, 241n38, 242n52, 242n54;
on accidents, 49–50;
and comparisons, 39–40, 59;
criticizing Redi, 36–37, 46–48, 51–52;
as experimentalist, 36, 41, 49, 52;
and repetitions 37, 47–48, 59;
reviews on, 53;
on writing, 38–39, 58
chemical tests, 64–65, 73, 76, 103, 141
Churchill, Frederick, 274n73
Cimento Academy. See Accademia del Cimento
circumstances, 1, 18–19, 23, 49, 55, 59, 64, 80–81, 83, 88–94, 96, 98–100, 103, 105, 107–10, 133, 221, 225, 227
Clericuzio, Antonio, 238n31
Çoko, Klodian, 281n31
Coleman, William, 61, 134, 257n62, 257n63
color test, 25, 74, 83–84
commercialization (of research), 176–77, 272n51
complexity, 151–55, 227;
of Ehrlich’s theory, 172, 193;
of experimental projects, 92, 104, 131–32, 146;
of experiments and experimental settings, 86, 89, 100, 113, 154–55, 174–76, 179, 208, 219;
of methods discourse, 9, 25, 211;
of the organic, 3, 128, 130, 163, 183, 195, 201, 208, 218;
of venom 203, 207
Comte, Auguste, 127–28, 130, 218, 226
Console, Renzo, 241n38
contagion, 63, 71–72, 149–50, 245n6, 262n33
control, 4, 77, 99, 128, 141, 151–55, 200, 211, 219, 264n50;
control experiment, 10, 17, 151–53, 179–81, 219, 256n54, 262n39, 263n44, 263n49;
control group, 99;
controlled conditions, 176, 178–79;
controlling life, 273n63, 275n74;
sociopolitical control, 153–54. See also randomized controlled trial (RCT)
Corner, George, W., 159
Counce, S. J., 275n78
counterproof, 124–31, 154, 257n55
Craver, Carl, 270n39
Creager, Angela, 278n7, 279n20
Crist, Eileen, 270n36, 275n85
crotoxin, 198–212;
crotoxin complex, 207;
crystallization of, 203–4
Culp, Sylvia, 280n30
cultures (of bacteria), 141, 150–51, 170, 172
Dalton, John Call, 118–19, 121, 125–27, 130, 142, 253n8, 261n19
Dante, 14, 30, 33–34, 239n11
(p.311) Darden, Lindley, 270n39
Daston, Lorraine, 235n19, 237n11
De, S. S., 205
Dear, Peter, 237n24, 240n25
Debus, Allen, 245n16
de Chadarevian, Soraya, 261n23
decisive instance, 40, 45–46, 52, 98, 100, 139, 250n25, 250n28
Dierig, Sven, 259n13
diphtheria, 170, 177–79, 269n29
discourse. See methods discourse
discoverability, 106, 111, 137, 193, 223, 251n38
disease:
acute, 116, 123;
cause of, 103, 150, 181, 269n28, 274n69;
chronic, 116, 123;
external, 102;
infectious, 150, 162, 169–70;
internal, 101, 102, 123
dissection, 21, 29, 36–39, 114, 116, 123, 233n9
Douard, John, 261n23
Duhem, Pierre, 2, 185
Earles, Melvin, 249n8
Edsall, John, 278n3
Ehrlich, Paul, 171–72, 173–74, 175, 185, 199, 270nn35–36, 275n85;
side-chain theory, 172;
standardization of serum, 177–78
electrophoresis, 195, 203, 205–6, 209, 278n10
Elliott, Kevin, 233n4
Elzen, Boelie, 278n6
embryology, 162–65, 175, 181–82, 184, 186, 219, 221
Engelhardt, Dietrich von, 274n70
epistemological strategies of experimentation, 231n2, 232n3
experimentalism, 15, 18, 26, 63, 159;
Charas’s, 36, 41, 49, 52;
at the Cimento Academy, 13, 15, 32;
Flexner’s, 167–69;
Fontana’s, 80–81, 88, 91, 108, 214;
general commitment to, 7, 11, 12, 26, 41, 49, 58, 213, 221–22, 236n21;
long-term history of, 16, 27, 58, 213–14;
Mead’s, 62–63, 75–76;
Mitchell’s, 116–19, 136, 142–45;
Redi on, 30–31;
at the Royal Society, 14
experimental report. See writing
experimentum crucis. See experiment: crucial
Fairbairn, Donald, 279n17
fallacies of experimentation, 121, 131
Faraday, Michael, 90, 143
Feyerabend, Paul, 226
Figlio, Karl, 264n51
Findlen, Paula, 234n14, 236n2, 236n8, 239n3, 239n6
Fisher, Ronald A., 130
Fleming, Donald, 267n13
Flexner, Abraham, 165
Flexner, Simon, 161–67, 168–69, 266n2, 267n16, 267n17, 267n20, 269n32, 273n55;
on experimentalism, 167–69;
purification, 173–74;
standards and thresholds, 177–78;
using Ehrlich’s theory, 173, 186, 192–93, 197, 200, 270n36;
venom and bacteria, 180–81, 274n66;
as a writer, 209
Flexner Report on the State of American Medical Education, 165
Fontana, Felice, 1, 4, 8, 77–78, 112, 117, 120, 125, 126, 133, 136–37, 151, 155, 157, 161, 175, 189, 212, 213–14, 217, 220–21, 223, 225, 226, 246nn1–3, 247n23, 248n3, 249nn8–9, 250n25, 251n34, 266n3;
amputation experiments, 101–3;
on analytical writing, 106–7;
circumstances, 91–100, 110;
criticizing Mead, 83–85;
decisive trials, 98–100;
as experimentalist, 80–81, 88, 91, 108, 214;
external disease caused by venom, 102;
and Haller, 80, 85–86, 247nn8–9;
internal disease caused by venom, 101–2;
as Newtonian, 80–81;
principal methods of experimentation, 88–91, 248n2;
and prolixity, 103–4, 107;
and Redi, 77–78, 79–80, 82, 86, 88–89, 92–93, 98, 109;
repetition, 92, 93, 96, 98, 109;
variation (diversification), 84, 91–100, 110–11, 252n53;
writing style, 81–82, 86, 87, 103–8
Fraenkel-Conrat, Heinz, 198–200, 203–9, 212, 279n13, 279n20, 280n23, 281n43
(p.312) Franklin, Allan, 217, 231n2, 232n3
Fruton, Joseph, 277nn1–3
Galen, 31, 41, 43, 99, 239n15
Galilei, Galileo, 12–13, 15, 19, 30, 33
Galison, Peter, 235n21
Geison, Gerald, 254n25
gifts (of venom), 188, 197, 216
Gigerenzer, Gerd, 263n44
Goetz, Christopher, 252n1
Golinski, Jan, 89, 248n3
Gopen, George, 284n65
Gordon, Bernard, 41, 242n54
Gosh, B. N., 205
Gradmann, Christoph, 262nn34–35, 262n37
Gralén, Nils, 204
graphical method. See laboratory: recording instruments
Greene, Harry, 233n7
Grmek, Mirko, 258n66
Gross, Alan, 258n73
Guerrini, Anita, 69, 232n4, 233n9, 234n10
Habermann, Ernst, 206–7
Hacking, Ian, 143, 186, 259n12, 263n42
Hahn, Roger, 236n3
Haller, Albrecht von, 80, 105, 108, 247nn8–9, 248nn25–26;
on experimental methods, 80, 85;
on irritability and sensibility, 85;
on tendons, 97, 250n23
Hammond, William, 122
Harmon, Joseph E., 258n73
Hawgood, Barbara, 279n13
Herschel, John, 2, 126–27, 130, 190, 218
Hoffmann, Christoph, 251n48
Holligsworth, J. Rogers, 268n22
Holmes, Frederic, 6, 23–24, 81–82, 247n14
Howson, Colin, 231n2
Hudson, Robert, 280n26, 280n30
Hughes, Thomas, 264n50
Hüntelmann, Axel, 272nn50–51
hypothesis, 2, 14, 40, 64, 69, 80, 90, 96, 102, 104, 122, 138, 173, 183–88, 193, 200–201, 220, 280n25;
auxiliary, 50, 185;
hypothetico-deductive method. See method: hypothetico-deductive
idols of the mind, 12, 16–18, 50, 185. See also Bacon, Francis
immunology, 3, 161, 162–63, 168, 170, 172–73, 175, 176, 177, 179, 181, 188, 194, 197, 199, 207, 216, 219, 266n4, 270n34, 271n41;
immunological experiments, general, 171, 175, 181, 184
IMRD scheme, 7, 211–12. See also methods section
independent confirmation, 9, 183, 201, 225
industrialization, 143, 153
invisible entities. See unobservables
Jardine, Nicholas, 252n2
Johns Hopkins University, 140, 144, 162, 164–67, 179, 260nn14–15, 261n19
Kalb, Stefanie, 283n54
Kay, Lilly, 277n1, 278n10
Keating, Peter, 263n42
Kellaway, C. H., 198
Kitasato, Shibasaburo, 166, 170
Klauber, Laurence, 77
Klobusitzky, Dionysius, 205
Knoefel, Peter, 239n11, 240n16, 246n2, 246n4, 247n9, 249n8
Knorr-Cetina, Karin, 7, 234n13
Koch, Robert, 149, 150, 163, 166, 184, 262n37
Kohler, Robert, 277n1, 279n15
König, P., 205
Kuhn, Thomas, 234n11
Kyes, Preston, 186, 198, 271n41, 276n89
laboratory, 2, 5, 113–14, 115, 118, 140, 142–45, 163, 164–65, 167, 170, 179, 259n11, 260n14, 260n15, 267n17;
European laboratories, 115, 164–65, 253n8, 259n13;
laboratory style, 259n12;
recording instruments, 141, 143, 147, 167, 170. See also laboratory revolution
laboratory revolution, 112, 143, 168, 259n9
Lakatos, Imre, 185
Lampland, Martha, 272n47
Landecker, Hannah, 284n2
Laplace, Pierre-Simon, 132
Latour, Bruno, 234nn12–13
Laudan, Larry, 187, 251n39
Leigh, Robert, 239n15
(p.313) Lenoir, Timothy, 272n51
Leonelli, Sabina, 233n4
Lesch, John, 255n35
Li, Choh Hao, 205, 209
Liebenau, Jonathan, 272n51
Lind, James, 250n29
literary technologies. See writing
Loeb, Jacques, 164–66, 180, 264n50, 273n63, 275n74, 275n76
Louis, Pierre Charles Alexandre, 132–34, 163, 257n64
Lunbeck, Elizabeth, 235n19
lytic actions:
Flexner and Noguchi on, 172, 173–75, 185–86
Machamer, Peter, 270n39
mad dogs, 22, 25, 63, 73, 87
Maehle, Andreas-Holger, 234n10, 259n11
Maerker, Anna, 246n2
Magendie, François, 81, 121–22, 255n40, 257n66
Maienschein, Jane, 267n11, 267n14, 274n73, 275n76, 276n95
Marine Biology Laboratory (MBL, Woods Hole), 162, 163, 164, 166, 169, 179, 182, 269n32, 275n76
Marks, Harry, 233n5, 258n5, 269n30
Martin, H. Nevell, 40, 144, 164–65, 167, 260n15, 261n19
matter (concepts of), 15, 70–71, 73, 75, 104, 169, 176, 187, 235n21, 240n23
matters of fact, 11, 14, 23–24, 43, 47, 58, 63–64, 72, 75, 80, 108
Matthews, Rosser, 257n62
Maxwell, James, 154
Mayo, Deborah, 232n3
McCartney, Eugene, 262n39
McVaugh, Michael, 242n54
Mead, Richard, 61–76, 78–79, 82, 83–85, 86, 91, 99, 100, 102, 108, 120, 145, 149, 244n3, 244n5, 245n6, 245n26, 248n27, 255n39;
on Charas, 65–66;
as experimentalist, 62–63, 75–76;
his writing, 64, 72, 76;
mechanical philosophy, 63, 65, 67;
as Newtonian, 61–64, 69, 73, 80, 117, 218, 226;
on the plague, 70–72;
on spiky salts of venom, 67–69
measurement, 73, 95–96, 147–48, 154, 189, 204, 225, 259n7
mechanism, 63, 165, 270n39;
body’s defense mechanism, 162, 170, 171, 181, 271n41, 274n65. See also Mead, Richard: mechanical philosophy
medical education, 114–15, 142, 165, 167–69, 254n25, 264n30
medicine, scientific, 2, 112–13, 114, 117, 119, 142–45, 156, 167–68, 222, 252n3, 261n32
Mellish, Maud, 210
Ménez, André, 233n6
method:
of difference, 10, 127–28, 130, 152, 154, 180, 183, 242n52, 256n51, 263n44;
hypothetico-deductive, 186–87, 193;
new experimental method, 11, 12–13, 14, 30, 88, 221;
numerical, 132–34;
principal (of experimentation), 88–91;
method of difference. See method: of difference
methodological statements. See methodological views
methodological views:
justification of, 5, 7–8, 25, 26, 60, 215, 220–21, 225
methods discourse, 5–8, 10, 42, 52, 58, 59, 62, 75, 81, 82, 86, 88, 103, 112, 113, 151, 209, 213, 214, 216, 223–24, 235n19, 236n21;
history of, 60, 76, 77, 91, 100, 108–9, 112, 125, 135, 159, 162, 167, 200, 223;
layers of, 23–27, 57, 213–15;
leitmotifs of, 37, 41, 84, 94, 124, 220, 225;
long-term history of, 98, 215, 218, 222, 224–26, 256n54;
normal, 9
methods section, 7, 27, 136, 208–9, 212, 215, 235n20, 284n2. See also IMRD scheme; modular article
microscopy, 64, 149, 163, 165, 275n84
Mitchell, S. Weir, 113–16, 140–41, 161–62, 169–70, 172, 173, 177, 193, 222, 252n1, 253n5, 253n10, 253n15, 254n20, 254n32, 255n33, 255n39, 258n72, 260n14, 261n24, (p.314) 262n36, 271n45, 273n55;
action of venom on blood, 123–24;
active principles of venom, 121–22;
and bacteriology, 149–51;
comparative experimentation, 126, 130;
on experimental criticism, 131–35, 257n61;
on experimentalism, 116–19, 136, 142–45;
and laboratories, 113–15, 118, 140, 142–45;
physiological experimentation, 146–49;
test (check) experiments, 125–26;
on variation, 125;
minimal lethal dose, 177–78, 199
modular article, 136, 194, 208–12, 215, 225. See also IMRD scheme; methods section
Myers, Greg, 235n20
Myrbäck, Karl, 198, 277n1
narrative, 6, 7, 8, 23–26, 29, 34, 35, 36, 42, 46, 58, 81–82, 83, 91, 105, 108, 136–37, 159, 191, 209, 210, 214, 215, 223, 247n14
nature:
fickle, 92, 93;
wantonness of, 19, 25, 34, 41, 92
Nature (journal), 211
Neumann, Wilhelm, 206, 283n54
Neumann, Wilhelm Paul, 206–7, 283n55
New Experimental Method. See method
Newton, 2, 61, 63, 68–71, 104–5;
Optics, 41, 62, 70–73, 75, 105;
Principia, 62, 68, 70
Newtonianism, 6, 62–64, 69, 76, 80, 96, 117, 129, 218, 222, 226, 246n29, 249n10, 251n40, 251n42
Nickles, Thomas, 251n38
Nieto-Galan, Agustí, 255n39
Nockels Fabbri, Christiane, 239n4
Novum Organum. See Bacon, Francis
Numbers, Ronald, 252n3
numerical data. See quantification
Nuttall, George Henry, 267n18, 274n65
Nutton, Vivian, 262n33
Olesko, Kathryn, 260n13
O’Malley, Maureen, 233n4
Orfila, Matteu, 123, 255n39
Otis, Laura, 252n1
Pagel, Walter, 238n31, 252n2
Paracelsus, 67, 206
Parke, Emily, 240n23
Pauly, Philip, 260n15, 266n8, 267n9, 273n63, 274n72, 275n73
Pera, Marcello, 235n16, 255n41
Phisalix, Marie, 241n38
Platt, Thomas, 53–59, 111
Plesset, Isabel, 268n23
poison, 3, 4, 9, 28, 41, 53, 85, 122, 123, 176, 196, 256n51, 271n41, 283n54;
Boyle on, 20–22;
curare, 78, 122, 129, 130;
general account of, 53, 63, 72, 246n3, 255n39. See also venom
Popper, Karl, 6, 90, 185
Porter, Theodore, 250n29, 257n58, 257nn62–63, 271n47
Prelli, Lawrence, 235n16
Principe, Larry, 238n25
principle:
gummy, 103;
obnoxious, 87–88, 100–101, 122
protocol, 4, 7, 25–27, 30, 43, 54–55, 82, 136, 145, 159–60, 213, 215–16, 220, 221;
experimental, 25, 208;
historical development of, 209, 212–14, 216, 225;
transcontextual, 113, 119–24, 150, 169–70, 173, 194, 284n1
Prüll, Cay-Rüdiger, 272n51
putrefaction, 149–50, 152, 158, 195, 274n66
Rader, Karen, 272n47
Ragland, Evan, 247n16
randomized controlled trial (RCT), 100, 250n29, 263n42
(p.315) Rasmussen, Nicolas, 266n73, 280n30
real-life methodology, 202, 281n32
Réaumur, René Antoine, 81–82, 157
reconstruction:
philosophers’ reconstructions, 8–10, 100, 219;
scientists’ reconstructions, 82, 191
recording instruments. See laboratory
Redi, Francesco, 28–35, 42–46, 58–59, 79–80, 89, 93, 109, 117, 120, 224, 239n5, 239n11, 240n15, 242n53, 247n20, 258n77, 266n3;
on the ancients, 31;
on comparison, 45–46;
criticizing Charas, 43–45;
as experimentalist, 30–31;
his writing, 34;
on repetition, 32–34, 43–45, 46–47;
reviews of his work, 52–56
Reichert, Edward, 116, 140, 145, 158–59, 254n20, 265n70
Reidy, Michael, 258n73
Reinhardt, Carsten, 266n73
reliable process reasoning, 201–2
repetition, 10–20, 24–25, 32–34, 37, 40, 46, 47–48, 52, 54, 56, 67, 92, 93, 95, 98, 109–10, 125, 171, 215, 217, 220, 224, 225, 247n20;
and decisive trials, 43–46;
different understandings of, 48–49, 52, 59;
as a driving force for innovation, 95, 98, 110, 225
replication, 44, 217, 240n19. See also experiment: imitation
report (textual genre), 209–11. See also writing
Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg, 266n73
rhetoric, 190, 209, 234n16, 239n2
robust detection, 201–2, 221, 275n82, 280n30, 282n49
Roe, Shirley, 247n8
Rosenberg, Philip, 208, 283n60
Rosenfeld, Louis, 278n10
Ross, Karen, 266n2, 267n16, 270n38
Royal Society of London, 11–14, 16, 18–20, 23, 55, 58
Rübsamen, Klaus, 207, 283n57
Russell, Findley, 196, 233n7, 278n11
Ryan, Kathy, 258n2
Sage, Balthazar-Georges, 78, 87–89, 91, 108
Saggi di natural esperienze, 11, 13–15, 23, 28, 30, 32–33, 35, 58, 80
Sargent, Rose-Mary, 237n19
Schaffer, Simon, 6, 20, 234nn13–14, 237n25
Schaffner, Kenneth, 251n39, 256n54, 263n44
Schuster, John, 234n15
scientific medicine. See medicine, scientific
scientific method. See method: scientific
scientific writing. See writing
Senebier, Jean, 105–6, 155, 191
Shapin, Steven, 6, 20, 234nn13–14, 237n25, 284n5
Shea, William, 235n16
Silverstein, Arthur, 266n4, 270n34
Smith, George, 251n40
snakes, 28–29, 31, 33–34, 36, 44, 57, 101, 120, 162, 188, 197, 234n9, 279n3;
angry, 38–39, 40, 43, 48, 51–53, 56, 74;
popular works on, 3, 146, 155–56, 265n61. See also viper
snake stones, 3, 66, 239n5
Sprat, Thomas, 14–15, 58
Staden, Heinrich von, 236n1
standardization, 154, 159, 175–78, 199, 200, 201, 216, 264n60, 272n47, 272n51;
Ehrlich’s work on standard sera, 177–78
standard of comparison, 154, 178, 264n60
Star, Susan Leigh, 272n47
statistics, 132–35, 250n29, 257n58, 257n62
Steinke, Hubert, 248n25, 250n23
Steinle, Friedrich, 63, 89–90, 233n4, 245n8, 249n7, 249n18
Stigler, Stephen, 262n39
Sumner, James, 277n1
Svedberg, Theodor, 195–96, 203–5, 278n6, 281n40
Swan, Judith, 284n65
Takaki, Kanehiro, 176, 178, 272n49, 273n62
Taton, René, 243n1
Tauber, Alfred, 270n36, 275n85
Teich, Mikuláš, 277n2
tendons, 96–98, 108, 250n23
textual genres. See writing
theory-ladenness, 275n85
therapeutics, rational, 117, 119, 142, 145
theriac, 28–29, 31, 35–36, 39, 41, 93, 120, 240n15
threshold, 175–78
Toxicon (journal), 196, 280n22
(p.316) toxin, 170–72, 174, 177, 178, 179, 198, 199, 206
Tribby, Jay, 14, 31, 236n2, 239n3, 239n6, 239n13
Trizio, Emiliano, 282n49
Tröhler, Ulrich, 250n29
Trumpler, Maria, 252n53, 255n41
Tu, Anthony, 279n22
Tyson, Edward, 57, 67
ultracentrifuge, 195–96, 203–5, 232, 278n6, 278n10
underdetermination, 22, 185
unobservables, 184, 186–87, 220. See also cause: hidden; unseen hindrance
unseen hindrance, 34, 37, 93
Van Helmont, Jean Baptiste, 21–22, 33, 35, 38, 51–52, 100, 151, 238n31, 241n37
variation:
of experimental designs, 89–91, 125, 135;
and Fontana, 84, 91–100, 110–11;
of living things, 19, 34, 37, 133, 183;
of organic substances, 177, 178;
as a strategy of experimentation, 9, 80, 84, 89, 92, 98, 100, 109–10, 119, 124, 217–18, 220, 252n53
venom:
acidic nature of, 65, 69, 73–74, 83–86;
components, 173–75, 178, 197–208;
composite nature of, 103, 116, 121, 137, 145–48, 199–208;
crystals in, 65, 67, 73, 84;
fermentation and, 64, 67, 68, 69, 73–74, 79;
immaterial, 22, 35, 38–42, 44, 46, 51–53, 241n47;
tasting, 30, 75, 76, 82–83;
yellow liquor, 29, 32, 33–35, 38–40, 42, 43, 45–57, 64, 66, 74, 79, 82
viper:
bile of, 29–32, 34;
dead, 32, 33, 44, 45, 50, 54–55, 66;
enraged, 38–39, 40, 43, 48, 51–53, 56, 74;
meat of, 28, 45, 50, 66;
teeth of, 29, 34, 35, 38, 40, 50, 53–54, 57, 79
viper catcher, 30–31, 66, 82
vivisection. See antivivisectionism
volatile alkali, 78, 87–88, 91–94, 100
Warner, John Harley, 233n5, 252n2, 253n8, 254n24, 258n4
Wassermann, August, 176, 178, 272n49, 273n62
Watson, G., 239n4
Welch, William Henry, 164–65, 167, 179, 186, 190, 267n13, 267n18, 268n26, 269n28, 269n32, 271n41
Whewell, William, 2, 187, 191, 220, 226
Whitman, Charles, 179
Wise, Norton, 260n13
witnessing, 6, 20, 25–27, 32, 34, 42, 54–55, 58–59, 67, 85, 224, 247n23
Wood, Horatio, 142, 145, 261n19
Woodward, James, 280n27
Woolgar, Steve, 234n12, 234n13
Worboys, Michael, 233n5, 253n4, 259n9, 274n27
writing:
analytically, 103–8, 214;
deductively, 188–93, 223;
guidelines for, 7, 188, 189, 210–11, 223;
inductive composition, 24, 191–92;
instruction manuals for authors, 209–10;
literary technologies, 6, 20, 103;
modular organization, 7;
sequentially, 58, 82, 91, 93, 107, 108, 136, 137, 159, 191, 193, 223, 247n14;
yellow liquor. See venom
Yeo, Richard, 234n15
Zeller, E. Albert, 198
Zuckerman, Arnold, 244n5, 246n27
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